Resources are goods that are produced and stored by buildings locally on their colony but can also be moved by ships to other colonies or space stations. Producing new entities always requires spending resources of various quantities.
Constructable building types for food are restriced by current orbit but does not update when moving planets with Blackhole Generators. Orbit 3 enables construction of most food-producing buildings. Nothing grows naturally in orbit 8.
Ore production is restricted by planet type and is critical to construct buildings that require specific ore types. Is produced by Mines and Volcanos for example.
is produced by various water plants and by the glyph building Natural Spring. Production speed is restricted by planet type and by individual stats. Gas giants are known to lack water.
is required to power regular buildings and is produced by various power plants and Geo Thermal Vents.
is generated by constructing/demolishing buildings and constructing ships but constant production by buildings as well. Overflowing waste decreases happiness but can be disposed of with the help of waste chains in your local Trade Ministry.
is required to launch colony ships and speeds up construction/upgrade processes, though unhappy citizens build very slowly. Negative happiness enables hostile spies to incite insurrections unless the colony is a capital or its empire rank is 100 below the attacker's rank.
Happiness is stored per colony, does not require a storage building, and does not have a maximum value that is defined by a building.